Civilization Microprose Cost Of Research

Civilization Microprose Cost Of Research Technology Each turn, your civ will be generating science – hopefully quite a lot if you’ve got a campus district and a few buildings in it – which can be invested in research that in turn unlocks new technologies, starting from the basics like animal husbandry, all the way to space flight. If you research same thing it goes faster as both doing it. So for example if you research one thing and the other guy too, it goes down from 4 turns to 2. You're (almost) discribing how science works in games with team alliances, but that has nothing to do with research agreements. Thus “90% research, 10% tax” in Civilization doesn’t actually mean lower rates on your citizens and their businesses than “10% research, 90% tax”. You’re collecting the same amount of taxes in both cases, but in the first you’re putting it into research foundations and laboratories and grants, and in the second you’re putting it.

definition - MICROPROSE

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List of MicroProse gamesMicroProse SoftwareMicroprose SoccerMicroprose SoftwareMicroprose Systems


IndustryConsumer electronics, video game
Founded1982 as MicroProse Software, Inc., 2007 as MicroProse Systems LLC.
HeadquartersAlameda, CA, U.S.
ProductsVideo games, consumer electronics
ParentInteractive Game Group
MicroProse's former headquarters at 180 Lakefront Drive in Hunt Valley, Maryland

MicroProse was a video game publisher and developer, founded by Wild Bill Stealey and Sid Meier in 1982 as Microprose Software. In 1993, the company became a subsidiary of Spectrum HoloByte and has remained a subsidiary or brand name under several other corporations since. The brand is currently owned by Interactive Game Group.

  • 1History


Founded in 1982 by Bill Stealey and Sid Meier, Microprose Software Inc. was primarily known as a publisher of flight simulators, military simulations, and strategy titles for 8-bithome computers such as the Commodore 64, Apple II, and Atari 8-bit family, with titles such as Spitfire Ace and Hellcat Ace. It also published a few strategy games at the time.

As industry changed over to 16-bit and 32-bit CPUs in late 1980s, MicroProse started supporting IBM PC compatibles and 68000-based machines like the Amiga and Atari ST. MicroProse also started a UK branch to cross-publish titles in Europe, and to import some European titles to be published in the United States. Notable products from this period include Silent Service, Airborne Ranger, Pirates!, F-19 Stealth Fighter and Gunship.

In 1990 and 1991, MicroProse released the blockbusters Railroad Tycoon and Civilization, by Sid Meier, on multiple platforms. They quickly became two of the best-selling strategy games of all time and spawned multiple sequels. MicroProse also released Geoff Crammond's Formula One Grand Prix to adulation in 1991 (the Amiga and Atari ST versions were released first, and the DOS version followed in early 1992). Games were also published by under the labels Firebird (Fire and Brimstone) and Rainbird (Midwinter).

In 1992, MicroProse acquired Leeds-based flight simulation developer Vektor Grafix,[1] who had already developed titles for (them such as B-17 Flying Fortress), turning it into a satellite development studio.


Civilization Microprose Cost Of Research


In the early 1990s, MicroProse attempted to diversify beyond its niche roots as a flight simulator and military sim company, and created two labels, MicroStyle in the UK, and MicroPlay in the United States. This label released games like the Rick Dangerous series (platform games), Stunt Car Racer (arcade racing) and Xenophobe (action/arcade).

MicroProse also invested a large sum of money to create an adventure game engine with which it could produce several games. However, the arcade division was canceled after making only two games: F-15 Strike Eagle The Arcade Game, and B.O.T.S.S. (a giant fighting robot game). Both of which featured high-end (for its time) 3D graphics, and failed to become popular as it was too different from existing machines. The adventure game engine was finished, but only three games (Rex Nebular, Return of the Phantom and Dragonsphere) were published before it was shelved and sold off to Sanctuary Woods.

Insufficient financial resources prevented MicroProse from developing games for other game platforms such as PlayStation and Nintendo 64, therefore MicroProse remained concentrated on the PC game market.[2]

Under Spectrum HoloByte

In 1993, MicroProse Software Inc. was acquired by Spectrum HoloByte, another game company that specialized in simulation games. Founder Bill Stealey was good friends with Spectrum HoloByte president Gilman Louie, and convinced Louie to help MicroProse as Stealey was afraid that some bank would not understand the company culture. That same year, the UK office of MicroProse closed two satellite offices in northern England, and disposed of over 40 staff at its Chipping Sodbury head office. In 1994, Bill Stealey departed MicroProse Software and Spectrum HoloByte agreed to buy out his shares. Bill Stealey went on to found Interactive Magic, another simulation software company.

Despite cuts, Spectrum Holobyte managed to line up several big name licenses, including Top Gun, Magic: The Gathering, Star Trek: The Next Generation and MechWarrior. UFO: Enemy Unknown (X-COM: UFO Defense) proved to be an unanticipated hit in 1994, spawning multiple sequels.

In 1996, Spectrum HoloByte/MicroProse bought out Simtex, developer of Master of Orion and Master of Magic, among other MicroProse bestsellers. Simtex was rebranded as MicroProse Texas, based in Austin, Texas.

MicroProse Software continued as separate subsidiary company under Spectrum HoloByte until 1996. That year, Spectrum HoloByte started cutting a majority of the MicroProse staff to reduce costs. Soon after, it consolidated all of its titles under the MicroProse brand (essentially renaming itself MicroProse). Sid Meier and Jeff Briggs departed the company after the staff cut, forming a new company called Firaxis Games. Brian Reynolds, who designed Civilization II, also moved to Firaxis.[3] A core group of artists, designers, and programmers left MicroProse UK to join Psygnosis, which opened an office in Stroud, United Kingdom, specifically to attract ex-MicroProse employees.

GT Interactive's $250 million cancelled offer

On October 5, 1997, GT Interactive announced that it had signed a definitive agreement to acquire MicroProse for $250 million in stock, the deal had even been unanimously approved by the Board of Directors of both companies. After the announcement MicroProse's stock price reached $7 a share. GT Interactive expected the deal to be completed by the end of that year.[4][5] But on December 5 the acquisition was cancelled, according to both CEOs 'the time is simply not right' for the deal. MicroProse's stock plummeted to just $2.31 after the announcement of the deal's cancellation.[6]

Legal dispute over the Civilization brand

In November 1997, MicroProse was sued by both Avalon Hill (who had the U.S. publishing rights to the name Civilization)[7] and Activision for copyright infringement. MicroProse responded by buying Hartland Trefoil, which was the original designer and manufacturer of the Civilization board game, and then sued Avalon Hill and Activision for trademark infringement and unfair business practices as a result of Activision's decision to develop and publish Civilization computer games.[8] Because Hasbro was negotiating the acquisition of both Avalon Hill and MicroProse, the lawsuits were settled in July 1998. Under the terms of the settlement MicroProse became the sole owner of the rights of the name Civilization and Activision acquired a license to publish a Civilization computer game which was later called Civilization: Call to Power.[7][9]

Under Hasbro Interactive

In preparation for its sale, MicroProse closed down its studio in Austin, Texas, in June 1998. As a result of the closure, 35 employees were laid off.[10]

On August 14, 1998, Hasbro issued a $70 million cash tender offer to purchase all MicroProse's shares for $6 each.[11] This deal was completed on September 14, when Hasbro bought 91% of MicroProse's shares and announded that MicroProse had become a wholly owned subsidiary.[12][13] The remaining shares would also be acquired for $6 in cash. MicroProse was merged with Hasbro Interactive.[14] At the time of Hasbro's acquisition, MicroProse had 343 employees, including 135 at Alameda, California, with a total cost of $20 million per year.[15] Besides the development studio in Alameda, MicroProse had three other studios: Hunt Valley, Maryland; Chapel Hill, North Carolina; and Chipping Sodbury, England.

In December 1998, MicroProse finally managed to publish Falcon 4.0 (in development since 1992), to disappointing sales. In December 1999, Hasbro Interactive closed down former MicroProse studios in Alameda and Chapel Hill.[16][17] Among titles in development that got canceled during that period was X-COM: Genesis.

Under Infogrames

In January 2001, after French game publisher Infogrames Entertainment, SA (IESA) took over Hasbro Interactive for $100 million,[18] MicroProse ceased to exist. Its latest title in the U.S., European Air War, was reissued with Infogrames' logo instead of the MicroProse logo. The last new game released with the MicroProse name was the UK version of Geoff Crammond's Grand Prix 4, in late 2002. Infogrames shut down the former MicroProse studio in Chipping Sodbury in September 2002.[19] Hasbro Interactive was renamed to Infogrames Interactive and then to Atari Interactive.[20]

Infogrames intermittently used the Atari name as a brand name for selected titles before officially changing the U.S. subsidiary's name to Atari, Inc. in 2003.[21] In November 2003, Atari Inc. closed the last former MicroProse development studio in Hunt Valley, Maryland,[22] which was MicroProse's original location. However, several game developers now exist in the area, including Firaxis Games and BreakAway Games, who all owe their origin to MicroProse.

Under Interactive Game Group

In 2007, Interactive Game Group acquired the MicroProse brand from Atari Interactive Inc, which filed for transfer of trademark protection on December 27, 2007.[23] Interactive Game Group then shared a percentage of the MicroProse brand to I-Drs At in January 2008.[24][25] Claims as to what titles and other intellectual properties were also acquired by the Interactive Game Group from Infogrames remain unverified, and the last verified owner of MicroProse properties is Infogrames.[26]

The Interactive Game Group also licensed the MicroProse brand to the Legacy Engineering Group (LEG), which used the license to form subsidiaries called Microprose Systems and Microprose Consumer Electronics Division, selling consumer electronics from February 2008 to the second half of 2008. In October 2008, the licensing agreement between LEG and Frederic Chesnais, owner of Interactive Game Group, was discontinued, forcing LEG to rebrand its subsidiaries to Legacy Consumer Electronics.[27]

Legacy of MicroProse

Sid Meier, who now works at Firaxis Games, eventually got the rights of most of his games back under his control from Atari Inc. Railroad Tycoon series rights was sold to PopTop Software, who developed Railroad Tycoon II and Railroad Tycoon 3. Eventually, Poptop was acquired by Take-Two Interactive, which later also acquired Firaxis as well, thus returning the rights to the series to Sid Meier, resulting in Sid Meier's Railroads!, released by Take-Two's 2K Games along with a new Sid Meier's Pirates! and the new Civilization games, including Sid Meier's Civilization III, Sid Meier's Civilization IV, Sid Meier's Civilization V, Sid Meier's Civilization IV: Colonization and Sid Meier's Civilization Revolution.

The rights to the X-COM series were also acquired by Take-Two Interactive and 2K Games, and as of 2012 Firaxis is developing XCOM: Enemy Unknown, while 2K Marin works on XCOM.

Master of Orion III was developed by QuickSilver Software and released under the Infogrames label.

Civilization Microprose Cost Of Research Pdf

Falcon 4.0 rights were sold to GraphSim who developed Falcon 4: Allied Forces. There are persistent rumors about Falcon 5, but so far nothing concrete has emerged.

Published games

Main article: List of MicroProse games

Financial performance

The tables below contain selected financial data extracted from MicroProse's Annual Report of 1998 and 1997 (fiscal years).[14][28]

MicroProse's Revenue (in millions )
Variation 200% 106% 29% 68% 40%

Civilization Microprose Cost Of Research Project

As it can be seen from the table above, MicroProse's revenue performance varied according to game releases. The release in February 1996 of Civilization II is one of the factor that weighed positively on 1997's financial result, that year revenues rose 68% to $100 million. MicroProse recognized that deficiency, the Annual Report of 1998[31] informed:

'The Company depends on both the timely introduction of successful new products or sequels to existing products to replace declining revenue from older products.'

And continued:

'If for any reason revenue from new products or other activities fails to replace declining revenue from existing products, or if revenue from back-catalog titles declines significantly, the Company's operating results may be adversely affected.'

That's why MicroProse's revenue varied so wildly, and in order to grow stably an ever increasing number of major game titles would have to be released in a timely basis and just maintaining revenues on the level of the previous year was a challenge.

MicroProse's Net Income/Loss (in millions)
Net Income (Loss)[30][32]$−4.0$−58.4$−18.0$−39.8$7.9$−33.1

MicroProse lost $145 million between the years 1993 and 1998. The incapacity of MicroProse to operate profitably explains why the company could not stay as an independent one for much longer and sought acquisition from GT Interactive and Hasbro Interactive. In addition, MicroProse's over dependence on new releases for both profits and revenues helps explain why MicroProse's market value went from $250 million in October 1997 to just $70 million 10 months later. Allyson krauss only fans.

In the first quarter of 1999, MicroProse posted revenues of $12.1 million and net losses of $7.8 million.[33]

Civilization Microprose Cost Of Research Cost


  1. ^'MicroProse buys Vektor Grafix', Computer Business Review Online
  2. ^'Hasbro Buying Alameda's MicroProse' from San Francisco Chronicle
  3. ^Forbes. July 25, 1997.
  4. ^'GT Interactive to Expand as World's Fastest Growing Interactive Entertainment Company Through Acquisition of MicroProse' from BNET Research Center
  5. ^'$250 Million Stock Deal for Microprose' from The New York Times
  6. ^'Company News; Microprose And Gt Interactive End Merger Talks' from The New York Times
  7. ^ abThe Fall of Avalon Hill from Academic Gaming Review
  8. ^
  10. ^Microprose Inc/DE · 10-Q · For 6/30/98 from SEC Info
  11. ^Hasbro MicroProse acquisition information (SC 14D1) from SEC Info (
  12. ^Hasbro MicroProse acquisition information (SC 14D1/A) from SEC Info
  13. ^'Hasbro, Inc. Announces Definitive Agreement to Acquire MicroProse, Inc.'. Hasbro Inc. 1998-08-12. Retrieved 2010-09-30.
  14. ^, Hasbro quarterly report for 9/27/98 from SEC Info
  15. ^, Hasbro Interactive study from Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth (PDF)
  16. ^, 'Hasbro to Cut 20% of Its Jobs and Take $97 Million Charge', from The New York Times
  17. ^, 'Hasbro Restructures' from Gamasutra NewsWire (December 7, 1999)
  18. ^ 'Company News; Hasbro Completes Sale of Interactive Business' from The New York Times
  19. ^, 'Infogrames closes UK MicroProse studio', from GameSpot
  20. ^ ((( Atari Interactive, Inc. > Overview )))
  21. ^'Atari lives again' from BBC News
  22. ^Atari closes former MicroProse studio from
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^'Legacy Engineering Group Parts Ways With Microprose Brand'. New York, NY: Media Syndicate. October 20, 2008. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  28. ^SEC Info - Microprose Inc/DE - 10-K - For 3/31/98
  29. ^SEC Info - Microprose Inc/DE - 10-K - For 3/31/97, On 6/30/97 - Table in Document 1 of 5 - 10-K - Annual Report
  30. ^ abMicroprose Inc/DE · 10-K · For 3/31/98, On 6/29/98 from SEC Info
  31. ^SEC Info - Microprose Inc/DE - 10-K - For 3/31/98
  32. ^SEC Info - Microprose Inc/DE - 10-K - For 3/31/97, On 6/30/97 - Table in Document 1 of 5 - 10-K - Annual Report
  33. ^SEC Info - Microprose Inc/DE - 10-Q - For 6/30/98

External links

Civilization Microprose Cost Of Research Paper

  • MicroProse company profile at MobyGames
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Manual, Tech Tree & Unit Posters
High quality remakes of the complete Civ2 poster. It consists of four parts: Technology Tree, Terrain Specifications, Unit Specifications, and Special Resources.

Author: Ben Wishner (aka Styx66)

The complete manual of classic Civilization II, in PDF Format. Thanks to Cedric Greene for the file.

Author: Microprose; File Size: 2.64 MB; Format: ZIP

'After learning the hard way how difficult it is to create my own tech tree, I decided to come up with something which would make the job easier. The 'Scenario Tech Tree' shows all available technologies along with the 3-letter code and any game effects of each discovery. The file is in MS Word Format, so it’s easy to move around tech blocks and rename them as necessary. This makes it MUCH easier to visualize your design. Hope it helps you as much as it’s helped me.'

Author: Erin T. Ryan; File Size: 19 KB; Format: ZIP

Scenario Design Tips & Tutorials
Just a some terrain I put together for my Stargate SG1 project. The only important file is terrain2 plus the swamp tile in terrain1. The rest of the files are only to support the demo.

Simply load up demo.sav to see the terrain. There is nothing to play, it is simply a demo.

Author: Kobayashi; File Size: 160 KB; Format: ZIP

A HTML tutorial on how to make high resolution graphics for Civ2. Screenshots included.

Author: Kobayashi; File Size: 200 KB; Format: HTML

'Although still a fairly obscure technique, fractional movement (units that move 1 and 1/3 squares per turn) is known to several scenario designers. The best claim of first invention probably goes to William Keenan, and you may see such units in action in the excellent scenario “Imperium Romanum” by Bernd Brosing. The purpose of this essay is to explain this technique mathematically – and explain some other curious facts along the way.'

Author: Leon Marrick; File Size: 4 KB; Format: RTF

'It is quite common to see a scenario without any research these days, which is quite a shame as the tech-tree to me is one of the more important dimensions of the Civ2 game engine. Sometimes a half-hearted effort is made to have a few items available for research at 10% of the normal rate but this too seems to give the feeling of incompleteness. One reason this is happening is that redoing the tech tree is probably the most user-unfriendly aspect of scenario making. I have been asked how I have managed to make completely new trees for my multi-player scenarios and the answer has always been – proper planning and the right sequence.'

Author: Kobayashi

A few thoughts from Morten Blaaberg on player motivation and realism in Civ2 scenarios. A great read for both scenario Authors and players!

Author: Morten Blaabjerg; File Size: [Online Viewing]

'A lot of people ask me questions about the difference between a Modpack (Modification PACKage) and a Scenario. I think there are some players out there who play both modpacks and scenarios and may not know for sure or even care about the difference. Still, there is a distinction to note, and the boundaries are actually quite clear. '

Author: John Valdez; File Size: 47 KB; Format: RTF

Create interesting effects by careful customization of the terrain image file for mountains, hills and rivers.

Author: Kobayashi; File Size: [Online Viewing]

By experimenting with unit roles and abilities, a scenario designer can conjure up some fascinating gameplay effects.

Author: Kobayashi; File Size: [Online Viewing]

Getting your scenario to function correctly includes accommodating for the special effects of unit slots, their sounds, and other features.

Author: Kobayashi; File Size: [Online Viewing]

Kobayashi Battle Outcome Simulator

'Its an Excel spreadsheet I wrote that simulates combat between two units 100 times and shows you the average result and amount of damage sustained. Input items are A/D Factor, Hit Points and Fire Power. Using it has helped me to avoid physically making the units attack each other repeatedly.' Discussion thread

Author: Kobayashi; File Size: 298 KB; Format: ZIP

'This manual is designed to assist those with both a firm understanding of the map editor and of the Cheat menu used in preparing scenarios to improve and polish their work. Novices are urged to read some of the excellent documents for beginners found on the 'Ultimate Civ2 Page', and practice with a design or two before delving too deeply into this document.'

Author: Leon Marrick; File Size: 43 KB; Format: ZIP

'This FAQ is designed to help you build scenarios for Civilization II. It is completely unofficial and not affiliated with Microprose in any way. Then again, neither is Brian Reynolds, so what the hey.

If you are new to building scenarios for Civ2, or even experienced but achieving unsatisfactory results, these notes may help you in your next effort. The material is organized as follows:

1) choosing a scenario
2) designing the map
3) placing the tribes on the map
4) starting the game
5) editing cities
6) creating units
7) controlling technology
8) influencing diplomacy
9) miscellany'

Author: Patrick Williams; File Size: 26 KB; Format: ZIP

'Copying and pasting the new unit into the green frame of the unit to be replaced is not enough…'

Author: Great Icon Library Site; File Size: [Online Viewing]

Tutorial: How to make your custom unit icons for CIV2.

Author: Antonio Leal; File Size: [Online Viewing]

Scenario Creation TipsA few short tips on scenario creation

Author: Rocky Mountain Civ2 Site; File Size: [Online Viewing]

'Well, this doesn’t pretend to be too much serious. Just to tell you some weird things I have discovered playing the game and changing the parameters. I have also added interesting tips from Civ2 gamers all around the Net. First of all, you must have your Civ2 copy ready. Afterwards, you’ll be free to change the numbers and files as I explain here, if you are enough suicide… Hey, always backup your original files before experimenting anything.'

Author: Antonio Leal; File Size: [Online Viewing]